Hawaii Volcano National Park - Current Update
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE
Tuesday, June 18, 2013 07:12 AM (Tuesday, June 18, 2013 17:12 UTC)
This report on the status of Kilauea volcanic activity, in addition to maps, photos, and Webcam images (available at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/activity/kilaueastatus.php), was prepared by the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park status can be found at http://www.nps.gov/havo/ or 985-6000. All times are Hawai`i Standard Time.
KILAUEA VOLCANO (CAVW #1302-01-)
19°25'16" N 155°17'13" W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE
Activity Summary: Eruption continues. Summit tilt and the lava lake level fluctuated minor amounts but remained fairly steady at the summit. At the middle east rift zone, the Kahauale`a II lava flow continued burning forest north of Pu`u `O`o. Southeast of Pu`u `O`o, the Peace Day flow had active breakouts at the base of the pali and on the coastal plain. Most of the flow, however, stayed within its lava tube until reaching the ocean on both the east and west sides of the Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park boundary. Gas emissions remained elevated.
Recent Observations at Kilauea summit: At the summit, tiltmeters recorded minor fluctuations with no longer-term trend. The summit lava lake level also fluctuated a small amount and remained about 45 m (150 ft) below the Halema`uma`u Crater floor. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 600 t/d on June 17, 2013; this value is a minimum because the data were acquired close to the vent where the plume is most dense and challenging to fully characterize. A very small amount of ash-sized tephra (mostly fresh spatter bits and Pele's hair) was carried out of the vent by the plume and deposited onto nearby surfaces.
Seismic tremor levels were low with no dropouts suggesting continuous spattering and gas emissions. Six earthquakes were strong enough to be located beneath Kilauea Volcano in the past 24 hours - 1 beneath the lower southwest rift zone, 2 within the Ka`oiki Pali area, 1 south of the summit caldera, 1 within the lower east rift zone, and 1 on south flank faults. GPS receivers spanning the summit caldera recorded continuing extension (about 1 cm/wk).
Background: The summit lava lake is within a cylindrical vent with a diameter of ~160 m (520 ft) and nearly vertical sides inset within the east wall and floor of Halema`uma`u Crater. Its level has varied from about 25 m to more than 200 m (out of sight) below the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater. The vent has been mostly active since opening with a small explosive event on March 19, 2008. The surface level of the lava lake has remained mostly below the inner ledge (~31 m or 100 ft below the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater on October 29, 2012) and has risen above and flooded the ledge in October 2012 and January 2013 before receding to greater depths. The lake level responds to summit tilt changes with the lake receding during deflation and rising during inflation.
Recent Observations at the middle east rift zone vents: The tiltmeter at Pu`u `O`o cone recorded minor fluctuations with no longer-term trend. The GPS line length from the north rim to the south base of Pu`u `O`o cone showed fluctuations without a longer-term trend since mid-May. The most recent (preliminary) sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 300 tonnes/day on June 17, 2013, from all east rift zone sources; these values have ranged between 150 and 450 t/d in 2013; measurements are made at a greater distance from the sources where the plume is more easily characterized.
Spatter cones on the crater floor of Pu`u `O`o showed their typical incandescence and the northeast spatter cone continued to feed the Kahauale`a II lava flow north of Pu`u `O`o. As of Friday, the most distant front of the Kahaulae`a flow is about 2.5 km (1.6 mi) due north of Pu`u `O`o and is advancing and burning forest at the north edge of Pu`u `O`o's 1983-1986 `a`a flow field. A second, more active, front is about 1.9 km (1.2 mi) NNW of Pu`u `O`o and is slowly advancing and also burning the edge of the forest. Finally, the breakout from the Kahauale`a tube on the lower northern flank of Pu`u `O`o continued to be active and may be building a low shield at the base of Pu`u `O`o cone. PNcam views show that this activity continued through this morning.
Southeast of Pu`u `O`o, the Peace Day flow hosts breakouts at the base of the pali, near the east margin of the Peace Day flow at the coast, and about mid-way across the coastal plain near the Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park boundary. Most of the Peace Day flow, however, stayed in lava tubes that empty into the ocean in two places - a main entry point, producing a persistent gas plume, just east of the Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park boundary, and a smaller entry point, producing a smaller, intermittent gas plume, just inside the National Park.
HAZARD ALERT: Lava entering the ocean builds lava deltas. The lava delta and adjacent areas are some of the most hazardous areas on the flow field. Frequent delta/bench collapses give little warning, can produce explosions capable of throwing both dense and molten rocks hundreds of meters (yards) in all directions (inland as well as out to sea), and can produce damaging local waves. The steam plume produced by lava entering the ocean contains fine lava fragments and an assortment of acid droplets that can be harmful to your health. The rapidly changing conditions near the ocean entry have been responsible for many injuries and a few deaths.
Background: The eruption in Kilauea's middle east rift zone started with a fissure eruption on January 3, 1983, and continued with few interruptions at Pu`u `O`o Cone, or temporarily from vents within a few kilometers to the east or west. A fissure eruption on the upper east flank of Pu`u `O`o Cone on Sept. 21, 2011, drained the lava lakes and fed a lava flow (Peace Day flow) that advanced southeast through the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision to the ocean within Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park in early December 2011. Since late December 2011, the flows have remained intermittently active on the pali and the coastal plain and finally re-entered the ocean starting on November 24, 2012. The Kahauale`a flow, which started from the spatter cone/lava lake at the northeast edge of the Pu`u `O`o crater floor in mid-January, 2013, was dead by late April, but a new flow (Kahauale`a II) became active in the same general area in early May . In general, activity waxes with inflation and wanes with deflation.
Hazard Summary: East rift vents and flow field - near-vent areas could erupt or collapse without warning with spatter and/or ash being wafted within the gas plume; potentially-lethal concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas may be present within 1 km downwind of vent areas. All recently active lava flows are within Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park, adjacent State land managed by the Department of Land and Natural Resources, and private property; the lava flows do not pose a hazard to any structures not already within the County-declared mandatory evacuation zone. Lava deltas, which can collapse into the ocean without warning, are extremely hazardous and should be avoided (see HAZARD ALERT above). Kilauea Crater - ash and Pele's hair can be carried several kilometers downwind; potentially-lethal concentrations of sulfur dioxide can be present within 1 km downwind.
Viewing Summary: East rift zone flow field - Most of the flow field is within the closed-access Kahauale'a Natural Area Reserve (NAR) and the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision and can only be viewed from the air. A small part of the western flow field near the coast in within Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (see below for access info). Under favorable weather conditions, active flows-when present-can be seen from the County Viewing Area at Kalapana (Lava hotline 961-8093). Pu`u `O`o Cone and Kilauea Crater - these areas are within Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park; Park access and viewing information can be found at http://www.nps.gov/havo/planyourvisit/lava2.htm.
For a definition of volcano alert levels and aviation color codes: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/activity/alertsystem/index.php
Maps, photos, Webcam views, and other information about Kilauea Volcano are available at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/activity/kilaueastatus.php. A daily update summary is available by phone at (808) 967-8862.
A map with details of earthquakes located within the past two weeks can be found at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/seismic/volcweb/earthquakes/
HVO Contact Information:
Definitions of Terms Used:
DI tilt event: DI is an abbreviation for 'deflation-inflation' and describes a geophysical event of uncertain volcanic significance. DI events are recorded by tiltmeters at Kilauea summit as an abrupt deflation of up to a few microradians in magnitude lasting several hours (weak DI events) to 2-3 days (strong DI events) followed by an abrupt inflation of approximately equal magnitude. The tilt events are usually accompanied by an increase in summit tremor during the deflation phase. A careful analysis of these events suggests that they may be related to changes in magma supply to a storage reservoir at less than 1 km depth, just east of Halema`uma`u crater. Usually, though not always, these changes propagate through the magma conduit from the summit to the east rift eruption site, as many of the DI events at Kilauea summit are also recorded at a tiltmeter at Pu`u `O`o delayed by several hours. DI events often correlate with lava pulses and/or pauses in the eruption at the Pu`u `O`o/Peace Day vents.
fill-and-drain, rise/fall cycles/events or high lava stands: one of the cyclical behaviors exhibited by the summit lava lake in starting in 2009. An event starts with a rise in lava level, a decrease in high-frequency summit tremor amplitude, and a small decrease in tilt. After a period of minutes to hours, the lava will abruptly drain back to its previous level, seismic tremor amplitude will increase for a short time (a seismic tremor burst), and summit tilt will return to its previous level. Although not measured continuously, spot checks of gas emissions demonstrate that far less gas is released during the high lava stand than during its draining phase suggesting that, during the high lava stand, lava is puffed up with gas trapped by crusts on the lava surface; the gas plume will also get thin and wispy during these cycles returning to more robustness afterward. In 2013, the character of these events has changed and are marked more by a lack of spattering sinks and less by a rise in lava level or tilt change during the low seismic tremor levels.
perched lava lake: a lava lake within a rim that is progressively built up by overflows of lava that have cooled and solidified. The most recent example of a perched lava lake is currently active within Pu`u `O`o maintaining a rim standing several meters (yards) above the crater floor. In many ways, a perched lava lake resembles an above-ground swimming pool. Overflows from the pond add layers to the surrounding crater floor building it higher; the overflows also build up the perched lake rim, continually keeping the lake rim raised above the floor.
mauka, makai: Hawaiian terms for directions relative to the coast - makai or ma kai (toward the coast) and mauka or ma uka (toward the highlands or away from the coast).
pali: Hawaiian term for cliff or precipice.
composite seismic events: is a seismic signal with multiple distinct phases that has been recorded frequently at HVO from the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent area since its explosive opening in March, 2008. For the composite events recorded at Halema`uma`u, we typically see an initial high frequency vibration lasting for a few seconds that have been correlated with rockfalls. This is followed by about 30 seconds of a long-period (LP) oscillation with an approximately 2- to 3-second period. The final phase of the signal is several minutes of a very-long-period (VLP) oscillation with an approximately 25- to 30-second period. The LP signals are interpreted to be from the uppermost portion of the conduit and VLP signals are interpreted to be fluid passing through a deep constriction in the conduit through which lava rises to the pond surface we see in the webcam.
Halema`uma`u Overlook vent: has been difficult to describe concisely. The vent is actually a pit, or crater, in the floor of the larger Halema`uma`u Crater which is, in turn, in the floor of the larger Kilauea caldera or crater - a crater within a crater within a crater. It is easiest to describe as a pit inset within the floor of a crater within a caldera. The pit is about 160 m (525 ft) in diameter at the Halema`uma`u Crater floor, is about 50 m in diameter at a depth of 200 m (660 ft) below the Halema`uma`u Crater floor. From November, 2009, to now, a lava pond surface has been visible in this pit.
glow: light from an unseen source; indirect light.
incandescence: the production of visible light from a hot surface. The term also refers to the light emitted from a hot surface. The color of the light is related to surface temperature. Some surfaces can display dull red incandescence at temperatures as low as 430 degrees Centigrade (806 degrees Fahrenheit). By contrast, molten lava displays bright orange to orange-yellow light from surfaces that are hotter than 900 degrees C (1,650 degrees F).
CD: Hawai`i County Civil Defense
tonne: metric unit equal to 1,000 kilograms, 2,204.6 lbs, or 1.1 English tons.
tephra: all material deposited by fallout from an eruption-related plume, regardless of size.
ash: tephra less than 2 mm (5/64 inches) in size.
microradian: a measure of angle equivalent to 0.000057 degrees.
More definitions with photos can be found at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/images/pglossary/index.php.
The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.
HVO Alert Archive Search
CALIFORNIA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATETuesday, June 18, 2013 11:45 AM PDT (Tuesday, June 18, 2013 18:45 UTC)
Monitored CALIFORNIA VOLCANOES
Current Volcano Alert Level: all NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: all GREEN
Activity Update: All volcanoes monitored by CalVO's telemetered, real-time sensor networks exhibit normal levels of background seismicity and deformation. Real-time monitoring networks are in place at Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake Volcano, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, Lassen Volcanic Center, Long Valley Caldera and Mono-Inyo Chain.
Observations for May 1, 2013 (0000h PDT) through May 31, 2013 (2359h PT):
Mt Shasta: No earthquakes were detected.
Medicine Lake:Two M>1 earthquakes detected, maximum M= 1.13.
Lassen Volcanic Center: One M = 1.90 earthquake was detected.
Clear Lake Volcanic Field: Two earthquakes were detected of magnitude M=1.0 or greater (all less than magnitude 2.0). . [Note: Typical high level of seismicity was observed under the Geysers steam field located at the western margin of CLVF. The largest event was M=2.9].
Long Valley Caldera and Mono-Inyo Chain: Twenty one earthquakes M>1 were located in the southern part of Long Valley Caldera (all were below magnitude 2.0 ); Three >M1 earthquakes were located on the Mono-Inyo chain near June Lakes, maximum magnitude M=1.8. Twelve M>1 earthquakes were detected under Mammoth Mountain (Maximum M=2.33) [Note: The typical high level of seismicity was observed south of the caldera in the Sierra Nevada range. The largest event was M=2.1]
Of special interest: A strong swarm of earthquakes started ~ 45 km southeast of Lassen Peak near the south shore of Lake Almanor on May 24 with a magnitude M=5.7 earthquake. The swarm, which was most intense on May 24-May 27, includes the M=5.7 on May 24, three events in the M4+ range, and twenty four in the M3+ range. No significant changes were noted in the Lassen Volcanic Field during the swarm, which is judged to be tectonic in nature. See additional information at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/nc71996906#summary.
The U.S. Geological Survey will continue to monitor these volcanoes closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted. For a definition of alert levels see http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/activity/alertsystem/icons.php.
As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program, the California Volcano Observatory aims to advance scientific understanding of volcanic processes and lessen the harmful impacts of volcanic activity in the volcanically active areas of California and Nevada. For additional USGS CalVO volcano information, background, images, and other graphics visit http://volcano.wr.usgs.gov/vsc/observatories/calvo.html. For general information on the USGS Volcano Hazard Program http://volcanoes.usgs.gov. Statewide seismic information for California and Nevada can be found at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqscanv/.
CalVO Alert Archive Search
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS WEEKLY UPDATEFriday, June 14, 2013 09:20 AM (Thursday, June 13, 2013 23:20 UTC)
Report prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey.
PAGAN VOLCANO (CAVW #0804-17=)
18°7'48" N 145°48' E, Summit Elevation 1870 ft (570 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW
A vigorous steam and gas plume from Pagan was visible in satellite images during periods of clear weather over the past week, and confirmed by a field crew currently on Pagan Island. This is typical of recent months of observation of Pagan, and no volcanic ash emissions have been detected in satellite images.
Because of this ongoing emission of volcanic gas from Pagan, it remains possible that residents of the CNMI may notice sulfurous odors under certain wind conditions. Additional information about volcanic gas and vog can be found online at this address: http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/hazards/FAQ_SO2-Vog-Ash/main.html
Pagan Volcano is not monitored with ground-based geophysical instrumentation and the only sources of information are satellite observations and occasional reports from observers who pass by or visit the island. We will continue to evaluate satellite imagery, on-island, and mariner reports when they become available, but because the volcano is not monitored with ground-based instruments, we cannot provide advanced warning of activity.
Access to the island may be restricted by the CNMI government. Contact the EMO for the latest information.
No eruptive activity or significant unrest was detected at other volcanoes in Northern Mariana Islands this week.
USGS Northern Marianas Duty Scientist (808) 967-8815
CNMI Emergency Management Office (670) 322-8001
NMI Alert Archive Search
YELLOWSTONE VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATEMonday, June 3, 2013 3:04 PM MDT (Monday, June 3, 2013 21:04 UTC)
YELLOWSTONE VOLCANO (CAVW #1205-01-)
44°25'48" N 110°40'12" W, Summit Elevation 9203 ft (2805 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN
During May 2013, the University of Utah located 170 earthquakes in the Yellowstone National Park region. The largest event, a minor earthquake with a magnitude of 3.0, occurred on May 7, 2013 at 07:22 AM MDT about 14 km (~9 miles) southeast of West Yellowstone, MT. During the month of May 2013, Yellowstone earthquakes clustered in four distinct areas:
1) About 13 km (~8 miles) southwest of Grant Village, WY, where 20 earthquakes occurred on May 2 and 3, 2013, with the largest event reaching magnitude 1.9.
2) About 15 km (~9 miles) west-northwest of Old Faithful, WY, where 11 earthquakes occurred from May 3 – 5, 2013, with the largest event reaching magnitude 1.3.
3) About 14 km (~9 miles) southeast of West Yellowstone, MT, where 61 earthquakes occurred from May 6 – 12, 2013, including the largest event of the month, the magnitude 3.0 of May 7, 2013.
4) About 16 km (~10 miles) south-southeast of Lake Village, WY, where 7 earthquakes occurred from May 11 – 19, 2013, with the largest event reaching magnitude 2.2. On May 28, 2013, 10 more earthquakes occurred near this area, with largest of these reaching magnitudes 1.3.
Earthquake activity at Yellowstone remains at normal background levels.
Slow subsidence of the caldera, which began in early 2010, continues. Current deformation patterns at Yellowstone are well within historical norms.
Please see: http://www.uusatrg.utah.edu/ts_ysrp.html for a map of GPS stations in the Yellowstone vicinity. For a graph of daily GPS positions at White Lake, within the Yellowstone caldera, please see: http://pbo.unavco.org/station/overview/WLWY
The Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) provides long-term monitoring of volcanic and earthquake activity in the Yellowstone National Park region. Yellowstone is the site of the largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features in the world and the first National Park. YVO is one of the five USGS Volcano Observatories that monitor volcanoes within the United States for science and public safety.
YVO Member agencies: USGS, Yellowstone National Park, University of Utah, University of Wyoming, UNAVCO, Inc., Wyoming State Geological Survey, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Idaho Geological Survey
Jacob Lowenstern, USGS
Scientist-in-Charge, Yellowstone Volcano Observatory
YVO Alert Archive Search
Source: Kilauea Volcano Observatory
Information courtesy of ...
U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO).
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